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研究成果

一、高效并行算法:使物理气候系统模式能够并行使用上千核,并行效率达到30%以上,使得我国物理气候系统模式的并行算法达到国际先进水平,与美国、日本等发达国家的气候系统模式的并行效率相当甚至有所超过。
1 High-performance parallel algorithms support the physical CSM executed on a thousand-core system whose parallel efficiency is > 30%. This will make the parallel algorithms of the Chinese CSMmore efficient than those of the CSMs in Japan andAmerica.
二、地球系统模式并行应用框架J-Earth:支持单独大气模式或单独海洋模式的自动高效并行和局部网格自适应加密,不仅提高模式的计算效率,可支持模式高效使用上千核,而且还能提高模式的研发效率,支持模式的可持续发展。与已有的适用于武器物理模拟的并行应用框架JASMIN相比,J-Earth具有如下显著的不同:
1) JASMIN使用通用型网格,而J-Earth使用专用型的经纬度网格,从而将具有更高的效率;
2)气候系统模式的计算负载很独特,随地域和时段的不同而动态变化,因此J-Earth中需提出适合于气候系统模式这种特征的负载平衡方法和数据通信方法,与JASMIN中采用的方法将有显著区别;
3)J-Earth与JASMIN的其他区别主要体现在动态内存管理、数据结构、解法器以及编程接口等方面。
2) Parallel Applications Infrastructure for the Earth System Model (J-Earth): J-Earth supplies automatic parallelization and AMR techniques for a stand-alone atmospheric or ocean model. It not only uses the thousands of cores efficiently, but also improves the development productivities and supports sustainable development.Compared with the J-parallel Adaptive Structured Mesh Applications Infrastructure (JASMIN), which is a parallel application infrastructure for simulations of weapon physics, there are many different features in J-Earth.They include: (1) JASMIN is based on general logical, structured meshes, while J-Earth is going to use specific longitude-latitude meshes to make the computation more efficient; (2) The computational workload of the CSMis space- and time-dependent, and it changes dynamically with the evolving physics. Therefore, the strategies of load balancing and data transportation are specially designed for J-Earth and are markedly different from those of JASMIN. (3) Other differences between JASMIN and J-Earth include those of the dynamic memory management,the data structures, the solvers, and the programming interfaces.
三、基于J-Earth的模块化并行耦合器:目前国内外地球系统模式所使用的耦合器比较普遍的是美国NCAR开发的CPL系列,或者欧盟PRIM计划开发的OASIS系列,我国地球系统模式的耦合器也主要依赖于上述耦合器。这些耦合器目前尚不具备自动估计各分量模式计算负载的功能。本项目研制模块化并行耦合器将以J-Earth为基础进行研发,以便包括J-Earth已有的优秀性能,显著区别于国际上已有的耦合器。在此基础上,增加处理任意多套不同经纬度网格之间的大规模并行数据交换能力,以及面向地球系统模式不同分量耦合的友好和灵活的接口。新建耦合器与J-Earth的显著区别在于:1)接口完全不同:J-Earth的接口是面向某个单独分量模式(如大气模式)的不同子程序,而耦合器的接口是面向地球系统模式的不同分量模式;2)支持的数据交换的方式完全不同:J-Earth支持同一套网格之上不同区域之间的大规模并行数据交换,而新建耦合器支持多套不同网格之间的大规模并行数据交换。新耦合器与国际上已有的耦合器相比,一个最主要的创新(也是最主要的区别)在于它包含J-Earth的强大功能:局部网格的自适应加密、自动负载平衡等,而已有的耦合器尚未听到报道有这样的功能。由此可见,新建的耦合器将具有自主知识产权,具备二维耦合功能和任意局部嵌套加密的能力,支持地球系统模式在上千个处理器核上进行高精度、高分辨率的数值模拟,将实现我国在耦合器研制领域由“无”到“有”的质的突破,为十二五期间研制模块化并行三维耦合器打下重要基础,并有望使我国在IPCC Ar6时用上基于我们自己研发的耦合器的地球系统模式。从此,我国地球系统模式研发的核心技术将不再受制于他人。
3) J-Earthbased, modularized parallel coupler:
At present, for the ESM, the flux coupler (CPL) series developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) of USA and the ocean-atmosphere-sea ice-soil (OASIS) coupler series developed by the European Union's Program for Integrated Earth System Modelling (PRIM) are widely used. The couplers used in
our country are also based on the above series. Unfortunately, these series lack the ability to automatically estimate the computational workload of model components.In this project, to utilize the advanced performance of J-Earth, we will develop a modularized parallel coupler based on J-Earth. This will make a tremendous difference compared with the existing couplers. We will extend the ability to exchange data among different longitude-latitude meshes under the large-scale parallel computing environment and develop a friendly and flexible interface for different model components. The considerable differences between the new coupler and J-Earth are as follows:
a) Their interfaces are very different: The interface of J-Earth faces the different subroutines of a certain component of the ESM (e.g., the atmosphere model), while the interface of a coupler faces the different components of the ESM.
b) The data exchange methods are also very different: J-Earth supports parallel, large-scale data exchange between different domains on a mesh, while the newly built coupler supports parallel, large-scale data exchange among different meshes. Compared with other currently available couplers, the new coupler incorporates a notable innovation: It involves several of the powerful capabilities of J-Earth, including adaptive local refinement of the mesh, automatic
load balancing and so on. These have not been reported for other currently available couplers yet. Thus, it can be seen that we will own the independent intellectual property rights of the new coupler. The new coupler will have the abilities of two-dimensional coupling and arbitrarily local nested mesh refinement. It will also allow numerical simulations of the ESMto be conducted with high accuracy and high resolution on thousands of cores. This will allow the coupler research in our country to achieve some breakthroughs. This research will become a firmbasis for the development of modularized, parallel three-dimensional couplers for the twelfth 5-year plan and generate the ESMbased on our own couplers for IPCCAR6. Fromthen on, the key techniques of our ESM
research will not need to rely on the work of others.
四、基于J-Earth,建立自适应加密的大气环流并行模式、海洋环流并行模式和高效物理气候系统并行模式.
4) The adaptive refinement atmospheric and oceanic circulation parallel models and high-performance physical CSMbased on J-Earth will be established.
五、培养一批具有国际视野和国际影响力的中青年科学家,促进地学与高性能计算科学的学科交叉,为我国地球系统模式和高性能计算机的发展奠定基础。
5) This project will train a number of young scientists with international vision and international influence, and it will promote the interdisciplinarity of geosciences and computer science so as to enhance the development of the ESMand high-performance computing in China.
六、获得一批新研究成果的专利(如J-Earth、模块化并行耦合器等),在国内外刊物上发表一批高学术质量的论文,参加国际模式比较计划,提高我国在地球系统模式领域的影响力。
6) During this project, we will apply for a number of patents for research results such as J-Earth and the modularized parallel coupler. We will publish a number of high-quality academic papers in journals and conferences,and participate in relevant international model intercomparison programs in order to raise China's international standing and influence in the ESMcommunity.

通讯地址:北京市朝阳区华严里40号 北京9804信箱 中国科学院大气物理研究所科研楼
电话:010-82995223 010-82995173